An Israeli father escorting the hike, one of two carrying a gun, fired into the crowd to break it up, killing a Palestinian farmer.
The rockets, which triggered the Code Red alert system in Ashkelon and other Israeli communities, landed in Gaza, the Israel Defense Forces spokesman said.
At around 6:30 pm sirens sounded in the Shaar Hanegev Regional Council in the northwestern Negev.
Although there are no specific details regarding tomorrow's intended disruptions, the IDF is preparing for the possibility of renewed rioting along the Gaza Strip border during hours of prayer in Jerusalem, where both Israel Police and IDF Border Police forces have been bolstered.
The attempted attack also come five weeks after the Israeli military destroyed an attack tunnel belonging to the Palestinian Islamic Jihad terrorist group, which crossed into Israel from the Gaza Strip.
"In response to that fire and the projectiles fired at Israel throughout the day that fell short in Gaza, an IDF tank and an [Israel Air Force] aircraft targeted two terror posts in Gaza", the military said in a statement.
Hundreds of Palestinians protested on Thursday by burning posters of Trump, Israel's prime minister and the Israel and USA flags.
While Israel has always considered Jerusalem its capital, with the prime minister's office and parliament building located there, countries have avoided recognizing it as such to prevent damaging hopes for a two-state solution.