Congress had missed a midnight deadline when a conservative senator refused to allow an early vote on the compromise bill, but now a signature by Trump, who supports the deal, will reopen government offices.
Just three weeks ago, a similar failure to agree on a new budget in January resulted in a United States government shutdown for three days, with scores of federal agencies across America unable to continue operating.
Eventually, the Senate voted for the bill and sent it to the House, where 67 Republicans in the GOP-controlled chamber voted against the plan.
The Senate-crafted bill, backed by Trump, although he played little role in its drafting, would end for many months, at least beyond November's midterm congressional elections, the fiscal policy squabbling that has consumed Congress for months.
Paul voted for the deficit-financed tax bill in December.
The budget measure provides Pentagon spending increases sought by Trump and the GOP, more money for domestic agencies demanded by Democrats and $89 billion that both wanted for disaster relief.
The bill was the result of a grand bargain with Senate Democrats, who also insisted in an increase in domestic spending, blowing through budget restraints even as the Trump administration implements tax cuts passed by Congress a year ago. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, D-Calif., asked Speaker Paul Ryan in a Thursday night letter to promise he would bring a bipartisan immigration measure sponsored by Reps. "Now we have Republicans hand-in-hand with Democrats offering us trillion-dollar deficits". And that is likely to make the next fight over immigration even more challenging. Sadly, we needed some Dem votes for passage.
In September of a year ago, Trump announced he was ending the Deferred Action on Childhood Arrival (DACA) programme, giving Congress until March 5 to come up with a permanent solution. The plan could demoralize some Republican voters, hurting the party's efforts to keep its majorities in the House and Senate, they said.
The new budget bill would raise military and domestic spending by nearly $300 billion over the next two years.
Paul, a Kentucky Republican, said the overall budget bill that includes the stopgap measure would "loot the Treasury". "We will solve this DACA problem", he said.