"We call on the government of Saudi Arabia to support a thorough investigation of Mr Khashoggi's disappearance and to be transparent about the results of that investigation", Pompeo said in a statement.
The Saudi journalist, missing for a week, Jamal Khashoggi was sent to the Saudi Arabian consulate in Istanbul from the Saudi Embassy in Washington DC.
Government sources said police believe the journalist was killed inside the consulate.
The Saudi consulate called the claim "baseless" on Twitter.
Friends say Khashoggi went to the consulate last Tuesday to obtain the documents he needed to marry his Turkish fiancee, Hatice Cengiz.
Turkey's Foreign Ministry said a search would be conducted there.
The image released on Tuesday bore a date and date stamp.
Turkish investigators have hinted they know more about the disappearance than they have disclosed.
Khashoggi was a frequent contributor to the Washington Post and other western publications.
He said police were examining CCTV footage of entrances and exits at the consulate and Istanbul airport.
However, a number of closed-circuit surveillance cameras surround the area.
But Turkish police allege Mr Khashoggi was tortured and killed by a team flown in from the kingdom.
WhatsApp records show Khashoggi last viewed his messages on his USA cell phone at 1.06pm on Tuesday, around the time he entered the embassy.
The Council of Ministers on Tuesday highly appreciated the Kingdom's wise policies articulated by Crown Prince Muhammad Bin Salman, deputy premier and minister of defense, during his recent interview with Bloomberg.
Turan Kislakci, a friend of Khashoggi, said the 59-year-old told him he had been invited to return to Riyadh by the crown prince to act as an adviser.
The growing dispute over his fate threatens relations between Saudi Arabia and Turkey and raises new questions about the kingdom and the actions of its assertive Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, whom Khashoggi wrote critically about in his columns. Human and women's rights activists, intellectuals and clerics have been arrested - meanwhile, Saudi Arabia is waging a war in Yemen that has triggered a humanitarian crisis. That doesn't negate the fact that Khashoggi disappeared at or about the time he was supposed to be inside the consulate, and those circumstances don't leave a lot of room for other suspects.
The country has demanded Saudi Arabia prove he left, while not providing evidence to support the claim he was killed inside. "The consulate officials can not save themselves by simply saying "he has left", Erdogan told a news conference in Budapest, where he is on an official visit. "Why don't you prove it, you have to prove it".
The officials spoke on condition of anonymity because they were not authorised to talk to reporters about the subject.
Both planes' final destination was the Saudi capital of Riyadh.
"The request that America made to Saudi Arabia and other OPEC countries is to be sure that if there is any loss of supply from Iran, that we will supply that".
Erdogan's comments were his most direct suggestion yet about potential Saudi culpability in Khashoggi's disappearance.
Trump, who has long criticized the US media, on Monday said he was concerned about reports regarding the journalist and did not "like hearing about it", but that he hoped the situation "will sort itself out". Right now nobody knows anything about it, but there are some pretty bad stories going around.