The article in Environmental Research Letters said Chinese emissions in 2018, compared to 2017, were estimated to have grown 4.7 per cent, with the United States up 2.5 per cent, the European Union down 0.7 per cent, India up 6.3 per cent, and the rest of the world up 1.8 per cent.
"With this year's growth in emissions, it looks like the peak is not yet in sight".
The World Meteorological Organization said last week that 2018 was "on course to be the fourth warmest year on record" and pointed out that the 20 warmest years on record have all occurred within the past 22 years.
With negotiators of over 190 countries brainstorming in Poland on how to move on low carbon growth path under Paris Agreement, US President Donald Trump's remarks against the global climate deal sent a worrying signal - specifically when a new projection sees rise in CO2 emissions by 2.7% in 2018 mainly due to sustained growth in oil and gas use.
CO2 emissions have now risen for a second year, the study's authors say, after three years of little to no growth from 2014 to 2016. China's emissions accounted for 27% of the global total, having grown an estimated 4.7% in 2018 and reaching a new all-time high.
A major step toward meeting goals set by the Paris Agreement would be to reduce emissions from transport, according to the report's lead researcher Corinne Le Quéré, professor of climate change science and policy at the UK's University of East Anglia. The calculations, announced during negotiations to put the 2015 Paris climate accord into effect, puts some of the landmark agreement's goals almost out of reach, scientists said.
The long-held goal would limit global warming to no more than 1.8 degrees from now, with a more ambitious goal of limiting warming to 0.9 degrees from now.
For the US, it was a combination of a hot summer and cold winter that required more electricity use for heating and cooling.
Average global temperatures were 1 degree Celsius above pre-industrial levels and projected to reach 1.5C within two decades at current rates of warming.
Jens Mattias Clausen, Greenpeace's climate change adviser, said the report underlined the urgent need for action. In U.S., use of coal actually fell but fossil fuels used in vehicle journeys rose by 1.4%.
Globally, the Carbon dioxide emissions this year is likely to touch 37.12 billion tonnes, which is 2.7 per cent more than the previous year.
In India, emissions are expected to grow by a solid 6.3 per cent in 2018, pushed by strong economic growth of around 8 per cent per year.