The Eastern European country's officers have seized documents from both Huawei's and Orange's offices.
There has been no public evidence that Huawei's equipment has been used for spying and the firm has repeatedly denied the claims, but several western countries have restricted Huawei's access to their markets and have pressured Canada to do the same. Orange has worked closely with Huawei to install 5G infrastructures.
In December, a Czech cybersecurity agency warned against using the software and hardware of Huawei and fellow Chinese company ZTE, saying they posed a threat to state security.
The arrests came amid growing concerns shared by European Union institutions and governments across the world about the activities of Huawei on their territory. "We have no comment for the time being", Huawei said in a statement.
US intelligence agencies allege Huawei Technologies Cos Ltd is linked to China's government and that its equipment could contain "backdoors" for use by government spies.
"It's not the beginning of this case but it's also not the end", he said.
Zaryn identified him as Weijing W and the Polish suspect as Piotr D.
It said that the pair had been charged under Polish laws relating to espionage and Polish state news agency PAP said that they would be detained for three months.
According to a draft of China's national intelligence law that was recently released, all Chinese companies "shall support, cooperate with and collaborate in national intelligence work, and maintain the secrecy of national intelligence work they are aware of".
It said, while at the Internal Security Agency, he was involved in building a mobile communications system for top Polish officials, and he was sacked in 2011 amid a major corruption scandal.
Australia and New Zealand have also enacted similar bans, leaving Canada the only country in the "Five Eyes" intelligence network not to take steps against the Chinese firm. The other detained person is a former high-ranking official at Poland's Internal Security Agency who worked at mobile phone operator Orange Polska SA.
Huawei is also mired in a USA case alleging violations of trade sanctions.
China's Ministry of Foreign Affairs said in a statement that it was "highly concerned" about the arrests.
Another Huawei executive has been arrested, this time in Poland on espionage charges, following the high-profile arrest of the company's chief financial officer on bank fraud charges in Canada last month.
Orange told the AP it did not know if the suspicions against its employee were related to his professional duties and that it was working with the country's security agency. The company's chief financial officer, Meng Wanzhou, was detained in Canada in December and faces charges that she violated U.S. trade sanctions.